May 1936
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Month May 1936

May 31, 1936

Sunday. Day reserved for bridge with Quezon but early in the morning a message came through from Nueva Ecija, that he would not return. Went to a tea dance at Bay View Hotel given in honour of ex-Senator Torralba, now an adviser at Malacañan.

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May 30, 1936

Many telephones out of action due to yesterday’s small flood.

Talked, however, with Quezon on the telephone.

Press carries a statement that the President opposes the transfer of Provincial Treasurers to the Department of Finance, but will submit the question to his Cabinet on Monday.

Received the May 1st copy of the Japan Times from the Japanese Consulate here, containing a special issue on Japan-Philippines relations with a very frank article by Debuchi, former Japanese Ambassador to the United States analyzing commercial and political difficulties of the Commonwealth. Also an article by Marquis Tokugawa expressing friendship and desire for more intimate relations with the Philippines. Also a plea by a Japanese businessman for tariff revision in the Philippines. Likewise, two very sensible articles putting forward Japan’s side of the Davao case, and estimating the investment there by Japanese variously from 50 million to 100 million yen. Also an article and speech by Manuel A. Alzate, chairman of the committee on Foreign Affairs of the Philippine Assembly. He begins by acknowledging their cultural debt to Spain and to United States and their economic and political debt to latter, but “This state of things, nevertheless is not bound to continue. Several forces are now at work tending to bring the Philippines into closer communion with the other countries of the Far East.” He analyses trade as it now exists between Japan and the Philippines and shows how one-sided it is, and insists Japan must buy more Philippine products: “Your country by reason of her geographical proximity and her present industrial development is an ideal market for Philippine products.”

The local papers here, print increasing accounts of “good-will” visits of Filipinos to Japan; also visits there of other prominent Filipinos in consequence of the “T.V.T.” newspaper contests here for “popularity” etc. All this movement and activity has sprung from the general belief outside the government circles here that the Philippines are a part of the Orient and had better make the best of the situation.” The recent coldly hostile attitude of the United States Congress etc., is having its effect, and underlying government influence here is no doubt stressing the necessity for an earnest study of their relations with Japan. The Japanese are making an evident attempt to show courtesy and consideration for the visiting Filipinos. All of the above shows that the Filipinos are making a real attempt (rather under cover) to face their fears and meet the dragon with out-stretched hand.

Received a wire that Doria is back in Shanghai; I hope the increasing troubles and public disturbances in China due to Japanese activity in the North will remain comparatively innocuous while she is there!

May 29, 1936

A. D. Williams at my office. A few days ago, he was called before the Cabinet to advise on new taxation. Quezon wants a transportation tax on all forms of travel. Cabinet members wish to devote the cedula tax to school purposes only, thus making it more popular.

The President went today to Cabuyao, Nueva Ecija to see a new church dedicated. A. D. Williams is to take him on Monday to Silang to see the route of a new road to Tagaytay thus cutting thirteen kilometers off the run. Quezon stopped this road construction several years ago (not to favour the wishes of Aguinaldo?). Now he wants to see it go through, but says he apprehends a “kick-back” because he (Quezon) is interested in the land syndicate at Tagaytay!

Luncheon with William Shaw at Wak-Wak for Andres Soriano–about 150 men–terrific din of talking and later of noisy jazz music. One’s voice is strained trying to converse. Say with Clyde Dewitt, and had a very interesting talk over the Archbishop and his business interests here. His Grace appears to be losing all along the line.

Hoskins greeted Secretary Rodriguez as “Governor” (he was formerly so in Rizal) and remarked that a governor of a province had more power than a Secretary of Department. “Yes” said Rodriguez “especially nowadays”! He has just been replaced by Secretary Alas as President of the National Development Co.

Small dance in the new downstairs cabaret at Malacañan. The heavy rain from 5-8 p.m. had flooded parts of the Palace, which we entered on planks. Quezon appeared late. He asked me if I noticed the speed with which he signed the Executive Order proposed by Unson for transferring Engineer Island and the lighthouse service to the Bureau of Customs. This is the second time lately he has emphasized his rapid executive action–Why?

May 28, 1936

Survey Board. I gave Unson a message from Quezon about the Provincial Treasurers. Advised him to bring up at once for Executive Order the transfer of these officials and also that of Engineers Island and the lighthouse service to the Bureau of Customs–in fact all the reorganization they have already decided upon. I think he is afraid he may prematurely make decisions which might have to be changed later in a more general reorganization.

Talked with Unson about nationalizing the Municipal police. He said a comment by Posadas was that if they were nationalized, the President would be blamed for all mistakes. In fact, Unson wishes to take away all administrative responsibility from Quezon–for example, he wants to put the Philippine Army under the Secretary of the Interior!

In Unson’s office I met General Alejandrino–he is no longer an “Adviser to the President”–left some weeks ago, apparently, from what he says, because he could never get to see Quezon!

Luncheon at Wak-Wak--despedida for Andres Soriano. Colonel Hodsoll asked me whether he should advise his friends to accept the government’s offer of $350 for their Philippine Ry. bonds–or go to foreclosure? I told him they would not get that much out of a foreclosure.

Sat between Dr. Tuason and Shultz, manager of the great Roxas estate at Calauan in Laguna. He has from three to four thousand employees–and in twenty-five years has had no labour troubles–never a case in court–there is now no indebtedness from his tenants to the plantation; has no bother from the Department of Labour officials. Says copra is a better price than the dessicated coconut factory pays–thinks the Philippines should stick to exporting raw materials, as they are not prepared for industrialization.

May 27, 1936

Luncheon alone with Quezon at Malacañan. He appeared in very good spirits; is swimming daily in his tank, and played golf at Wak-Wak at 5 o’c. this morning. Spoke with pleasure of my appearance of good health and asked me to go with him on the Negros trip to the Southern Islands June 3-15, with the members of the Assembly. I accepted. He spoke also of the speed with which he had acted at once on Miguel Unson’s recommendation for the creation of a budget commission and had appointed Marabut at the head. I said the Governor of Leyte would think this was the result of his public complaint when we were in Catbalogan in April because no Leyte men were high in government office–a complaint which the President had denounced blisteringly before the crowd (advocating a national, not a local outlook). Quezon said this was so, and as he had so many sound reasons for doing so, he would suspend that Governor for one month, to avoid his increasing his undesirable influence over his province thru the appointment of his friend Marabut.

I spoke to the President of the good time we had had at the dance at Masbate–he invited me to a small dance at Malacañan Friday night–said he had sent for Corpus from Masbate to come to Manila on government business, but the latter had not had the sense to bring those charmers with him!

I asked him (for Unson) what his attitude would be on the question of the transfer of the Provincial Treasurers from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Finance (Quirino?). He said that was a subject as to which as much might be said on one side as the other–that he would accept the recommendation of the Survey Board. (Later I told this to Unson, thinking he would act at once as I advised, but Unson began to deliberate!) I enquired of Quezon about the repeated kicks emanating from the United States Congress towards the Philippines nowadays, and whether they could not later be reasonably straightened out. He seemed doubtful, but evidently is not ready to talk about it. (Nazario tells me that at the last press conference he said it was “up to the American businessmen,” and hinted at reprisals by the Filipinos.) I told him the simile of American psychology–when a son grows up the father does nothing more for him; Quezon liked that. I said that some Americans appeared to be peevish now because after all that had been done for them the Filipinos had insisted on separation. He replied: “Well! then why did they give us independence?”

I called Quezon’s attention to the controversy over appropriations for the Department of Labour between Secretary Torres and Miguel Unson, in which Torres called Unson “not interested in the poor man”–Quezon at once said Unson was extremely interested in the welfare of the poor. He added that he had one Cabinet minister who was “useless” and “worthless,” namely Torres; that he had nearly fired Torres several months ago; that Torres kept calling up (3 times) in a recent Cabinet meeting the proposal to build four story concrete tenement houses for labourers. Quezon finally snubbed him, and explained that tenements to house 100 families would only make the other 900 families wild; that a four story building was “too much work” for a labourer to climb; that concrete as a material in this climate was too hot–“why not leave them in their nipa houses?”

An article in the Bulletin, May 29, described a quarrel between officials of the Department of Labour and some labour leaders as to which group should get the credit for the “higher wage” movement. Apparently, government officials claim the labour leaders are “trying to steal the show.” “There is no reason for this sudden antagonism” a high labour official stated, “as in the past we have always sided with the labour element.” This displays an utter lack of public responsibility, similar to the debates in the Municipal Council of Manila over the cochero registration ordinance–these speeches are only cadging for the cochero vote.

Quezon spoke highly of Sandiko–as did I–I told him Sandiko wishes to go to America to study the labour question there. He was interested.

A. D. Williams was brought in by Vargas, to receive instructions about air-conditioning the President’s room at Malacañan Palace. Was asked to have the work finished in two weeks–Quezon adding: “I don’t want to do it for my successor.”

We talked of Geo. White’s visit and of our old friends in Congress–Quezon said he had liked the Ohio delegation of that day, except R. J. Buckeley who had voted against independence for the Philippines offered in the Clarke Amendment (1916).

Quezon agreed with me about the type required for “Public Defender.”

May 26, 1936

Conference at the office of Paez, who had just returned from an air trip (his first) to survey transport possibilities in Mindanao. He showed me all plans for his suggested legislation in the coming session. I made an approving report thereon to Quezon. Paez told me was proceeding slowly and unit by unit to buy bus lines competing with the Manila Railroad, instead of announcing a general plan therefor. He said that the road which replaced the Tay-Tay–Antipolo branch of the Manila Railroad (taken out in my time) was now the most profitable section of the bus company–they carried 18,000 people to the shrine at Antipolo the other day–this being a month of pilgrimages. The railroad company will replace Cavite and other unprofitable railroad lines in the same way.

May 25, 1936

At the Survey Board and office, discussing the Bureau of Science etc. Bridge in the p.m. at the Manila Club.

May 24, 1936

Conflict between Don Vicente Singson, head of the Rice and Corn Corporation, and Collector of Customs Aldanese who insists on duty being paid on imports of rice from Saigon. Singson refuses to pay. Aldanese says that the Corporation makes a profit and must pay duty. (No doubt this is on the side of Chinese dealers who control the rice market here.) Later, Quezon, after consulting Secretary of Justice Yulo, ruled that the Corporation need not pay customs duty. (The Herald on May 27 gave a front page leader on this as “a menace to constitutional Government” because Quezon decided this point himself instead of letting it go to the courts.) It is evident that all signs of dictatorship will be resisted here.

May 23, 1936

Trip to San Pablo with Colonel Craig, Mrs. White and Miss Wolfson. The manager of the dessicated coconut factory there (Stofford) told of periodic visits from four or five agents of the Department of Labour, enquiring of workmen whether they had “any complaints.” As a matter of fact there were none, since the eight hundred employes receive one peso a day and good treatment. This is the wrong way about for these agents: they should be schooled now to make proper enquiries, like life insurance agents. There was also a complaint by Stofford of the administration of justice in San Pablo.

Marguerite Wolfson told how, before Murphy’s arrival, they all had been prejudiced because what she called a “Mick” had been appointed, but at her very first meeting with him, he won immediately her support and championship by his modesty and simplicity. He said to her: “My sister and I are very simple people, and have never been used to all this social life. We didn’t appreciate the complexity of this position.” So she turned in and helped all she could. She said T. Roosevelt was a disaster because as Governor he was too undignified in his relations with the Filipinos.

Conversation at luncheon at San Pablo about Japan. Stofford and Mrs. White very friendly to Japan and full of admiration for its accomplishments.

May 22, 1936

Newspaper blast purporting to come from Secretary of Labour Torres to the effect that the Department of Labour could not get funds for its expansion from the Survey Board, nor from the Budget Commissioner–that “Miguel Unson was not interested in the poor man”! This was followed later by a contradiction from Unson and a disavowal by Torres; nevertheless I believe Torres was quoted correctly. A few days later they printed rumours of a “general strike” with an editorial in the Bulletin questioning whether this complaint did not come from the Department of Labour because they couldn’t get all the funds they wanted. Next this was denied by Torres, who went so far in his denial that the labour leaders became balky. It is evident that the Department of Labour under Torres considers itself the political leader of the discontented.

May 21, 1936

Called on Dr. Victor Clark at the Manila Hotel; he is the new economic adviser to this government. He is employed by the Library of Congress of the United States. A great traveler and observer. He is well-balanced, but perhaps a little timid. Has been here before for several visits. He now advises the Filipinos to be cautious is asking for amendments to the Tydings-McDuffie law, and adds that they may get amendments in Congress they do not want. He asked me particularly about the Rice and Corn Corporation–whether all the sales could not be taken over by one organization; I called attention to the fact that most of the rice mills and sales agencies were in the hands of the Chinos. He also told me that formerly he had been disinclined to pay any attention to “chatter politics,” but he had seen them come true in Manchukuo and in Abyssinia. He added that if the Filipinos did not develop Mindanao, some cub reporter today might suggest that that island is just what the Japanese need, and in the end they might get it. I told him of Quezon’s extreme preoccupation with this problem.

Acting High Commissioner Weldon Jones called me to his office to present his report (which I asked for on January 27th!) concerning Colin Hoskin’s proposition that the Philippine Government should purchase silver at 45 cents with some of their dollar deposits in the United States and thus make millions by seignorage. Jones had come to a definite conclusion in opposition. He said the world was too unsettled for such a move, and that any tampering with the currency in the Philippines would alarm businessmen here. He declared the Philippines must not be put on a “silver basis,” since silver is too fluctuating in value as a commodity, and the world is “moving away from it.” He added that China has just gone off silver and has joined the dollar exchange. We then discussed the possible effects of this latter move upon the Japanese. I expressed regret that England’s strenuous attempt to bring China into sterling exchange had failed. The Chinese are sticking like leeches to us, hoping to embroil us with Japan, and England is now willing to have America pull the chestnuts out of the fire; our trade with China is not worth it; Japan has already started a counter-block by setting up local customs houses in the North China block–charging only one-fourth of the standard Chinese duties, and thus intending to flood China with Japanese goods, and so threaten the stability of all loans to China held by foreigners.

Bridge in the p.m. with Nazario, Tobangui and La O.

Big dinner at the Manila Hotel given by Mr. and Mrs. Tommy Wolff as a despedida for Don Andres Soriano who is off on a visit to St Jean de Luz. Both Soriano and Colonel Hodsoll told of telephone conversations by wireless in the last few days with Juan Figueras in Biarritz!

Talk with Benito Razon just back from the United States. He had been recently with a group of Americans who expressed disapproval of the apparent change of heart in the Philippines over independence since the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie law; that this change was no doubt due to the same influence which was causing America to withdraw from activities in the Orient–i.e., the power of Japan; that the demand for free markets for the Philippines in America was based on unfairness of the sanctions in the Tydings-McDuffie law by which America keeps her free market here for ten years, and Filipinos get a free market in the United States for only five years. He agreed with me that the new series of kicks by Americans against the Philippines is based on general indifference (“we never had any good reason for being there anyway”) plus an irritation that Filipinos should have preferred independence to retaining American protection.

May 20, 1936

Quezon issues a statement that passage by the United States Senate of a bill repealing the authorization to pay the Philippines $23 millions for gold devaluation of Philippine Government deposits in the United States banks was a “great injustice to the Filipino people,” and that the “loss of the money to the Philippines was directly due to the refusal of an American Secretary of War to convert convert Philippine Government deposits in the United States into bullion, despite the urgent requests of Philippine representatives”; and that: “The said funds were in the keeping of the government of the United States and held in trust by its officials and America has profited by it as much as we have lost.”

General Santos said, quoting MacArthur, that judging from the registration for military enrollment, the present population of the Philippines is 18,000,000. This is 4 million more than is usually given, but seems probable. It is 18 years since we took a census.

Victor Buencamino told us there is a daughter of Governor Frank Carpenter employed in the Philippine Education Co. I asked him about mestizos. He said those part Spanish and American blood exhibited all the worst traits of both races–that the Chino-Filipino was the best–(n.b. he is one himself)–the real reason (in my opinion) is that the half-blood of one of the dominating races tries to “belong” to the social caste above him and is rebuffed and embittered by his partial failure. The Chinese, on the other hand, have never dominated politically nor socially here.

At the Survey Board, Unson who had proposed abolishing the “home economic division” of the Bureau of Science, had today been interviewed by Miss Olora, head of that division. He was all of a twitter, and couldn’t keep off the subject of what a great work she was doing.

May 19, 1936

Three nice letters from Doria at Peking. She is thrilled by sight-seeing, but bored by all the “Main Street” personalities she meets.

Papers carry a statement by Quezon that he has arranged with the High Commissioner for a preliminary trade conference after the election in Washington. Papers guess that (Speaker) Roxas and Alunan will be sent (??).

3-5 p.m. with Survey Board–officials of the Bureau of Science there. I questioned them as to the failure of administration of the fish and game law.

Dinner at Colin Hoskins for Weldon Jones and Major General Santos; Jim Ross, Carlos Romulo, Dr. Valdes, Victor Buencamino there–all in barong tagalog. Conversation after dinner chiefly about General MacArthur and later about Japanese relations with the Philippines. Jim Ross said MacArthur was a brilliant soldier but had Napoleonic ambitions. Hoskins added he was sorry to see him here, as something always happened when MacArthur was present, and that the general only wanted or organize the Philippines Army to help the United States. Santos thinks Japan’s expansion is to continue on the mainland, and that she doesn’t want political sovereignty here.

May 18, 1936

Long talk with Unson about the reorganization of the government. Query: how to get funds from the Legislature for research scientific work? We finally decided the only way by which we could avoid alarming the legislature is to strengthen the Bureau of Science, instead of turning over its researchers to the University, or trying to secure a large appropriation for the Council of National Research (Dr. Roxas); Unson says Governor General Murphy considered Dr. Roxas something of a spendthrift. We talked of the American attitude of growing indifference and severity towards the Philippines. He commented that it was American psychology for a father to cut loose entirely from a grown-up son! Unson expressed doubt of the Philippine Army.

Quezon returned from Hong Kong and after a day at Malacañan left for Baguio. His office work is greatly in arrears and is in confusion. Vargas handed me a memorandum prepared by Quezon dated April 14 in Iloilo, addressed to me, (and unsigned) asking me to prepare papers to carry out the recommendations of the annual report of the Manila Railroad Co. This I received May 18!! Vargas says he found it “on the boat” (Arayat?). I hardly think it was meant for me, anyway, but probably for Paez who is away inspecting the line for the proposed railroad in Mindanao. Quezon cannot stand the racket at Malacañan Palace–when he finally does receive his visitors he gives three times the time necessary for each interview. He is too restless for office work anyway, and while there feels like a bird in a cage. He gives himself so thoroughly to each visitor that this kind of work wears him out. He cannot, however, let his underlings run their offices, so all of them are simply terrified of him, and the administration becomes paralyzed.

I asked Unson why the United States Army officers thrust themselves to the fore continually in the press, giving “full military honors” and exchanging so many visits of ceremony, so that the public must have an engorged idea of militarism in the Philippines. He said this was not so from Taft to me, but dated from General Wood as Governor General.

Unson is anxious to have the Bureau of Printing print all textbooks for Philippine schools; but is opposed by the Bureau of Education. I advised him to include this recommendation in the Survey Board’s report on the Bureau of Printing, thus advocating giving more employment to Filipino printers.

Golf alone at McKinley at 5 p.m.

May 17, 1936

Sunday. Quiet day at home–golf alone at McKinley at 5 o’c.

May 16, 1936

Asked A. D. Williams about hydro-electric power: he said the Meralco expended double its estimates on the Pagsanan site. He explained that under the constitution all water power is the property of the Government and can only be leased; not sold; that the only good sites left in the Philippines are:

(a)  Maria Cristina Falls in Lanao

(b)  Angat River ten miles above the new water works dam

(c)  possibly the Agno River.

There seems to be no opportunity in the circumstances for outside capital. He also said, speaking of the gold mines in the Paracale district, that because of mining; Paracale in 1840 was a town of 84,000 people; now it has only 2-3,000.

In p.m. golf alone at McKinley.

May 16, 1936

Abolition of the Bureau of Non-Christian Tribes is announced pending a commission which is to be substituted. It is alleged that the Moros (and Pagans?) object to the designation!

Two articles in the Press show the difficulty of running a government on Quezon’s method of never consulting newspapers:

(a)   Memo. by General MacArthur, in answer to Press criticisms, explaining that the selection of Generals for the new Philippine Army was made without any influence from Quezon.

(b)   Vargas’ explanation of a suggested new yacht for the government, was not merely for Quezon but to replace the Bustamante, the old cable ship, which became more expensive to repair than to substitute a new ship. An editorial in the Bulletin showing that “if a frank statement of intent had been made in the first place etc.”–and concluding: “no apologies are needed.” Quezon gives himself most reluctantly to the press–tho he is not nearly as neglectful of it as I used to be!

Ambrosio–for the past twenty-five years N° 1 chauffeur at Malacañan Palace, came to see me; he says Murphy will not return–(he is now High Commissioner Murphy’s chauffeur); this may be “servant’s gossip” but Ambrosio is in a position to hear a lot!

One hour and a half with Dr. Roxas and Unson at the Survey Board; Roxas expounding the necessity for a fixed and sufficient income for research work–says we must prepare for the “diversification” of industries. He and Unson ridicule the idea that the Philippine Government cannot exist without the fat sugar industry.

After Roxas left, Unson told me confidentially that “something very important” was pending in top circles, and that Quezon would have to return from Hong Kong by the 18th. It is a discussion of the relations of the Philippines with the United States and Japan. If Japan will not undermine the sovereignty of the Philippines, but merely wants trade here, it might be a good idea, according to Unson, to make some arrangement with Japan, in view of the “wobbling” of the United States’ attitude towards the Philippine problem. “We are here in the Orient, and here we stay.” This all-important question was possibly brought to the front by the Davao land muddle. Unson says that he and Vicente Singson wrote recently withdrawing from a dinner group at Wak-Wak because they found at the first dinner held that it was intended for them all to be committed to using their best efforts at whatever cost to secure retention of the United States’ market. Unson says there are plenty of other leading Filipinos who are restive under “too much sugar” in politics. They want to prepare for independence by planning the economic future. (Dr. Roxas is apparently of the same view.)

May 14, 1936

Short chat at Malacañan with Francisco Benitez, in which I expressed pleasure in the new plans for education. I asked him about building school houses–he said that in future they were going to stop building, in expensive and ugly concrete, and construct in “native materials.” After all these years of folly, I am glad to see common sense at last prevail.

Long talk with Dr. Manuel Roxas about the Council of National Research and the importance of research work in general to promote diversification of the products of the country. We seemed to agree about the deplorable paralysis in all economic plans, due principally to the influence of sugar interests and their lobby in Washington. Nevertheless, he wishes to speed up research work to be ready for the time when the National Development Co. does get to work (if ever).

In p.m., went with A. D. Williams, Consulting Engineer of the Metropolitan Water System to inspect their plant. Lovely drive to Ipo–on a road new to me. Otley Beyer, who came along with us, pointed out many of his best archaeological sites in Rizal and Bulacan, where he made the first discoveries in 1926. He was very interesting about the neolithic and Iron Age people. The latter era in the Philippines was from 200 B.C.–700 A.D. He also showed us the streaks of red earth where the “tektites” are found, which he named “Rizalites.” These are, he said, the only meteoric stones of a silicate nature, and also the only ones which contain mineral elements not yet known on this earth. The valley of the Novaliches River is rich in ancient remains–a region now largely unoccupied by man. Beyer says this is probably due to two reasons: (a) malaria (still there) and (b) gold digging and panning by the ancients, which then petered out, so far as their methods went. The earth here is honeycombed with old worm-like tunnels, with ventilation holes every 30 feet. Beyer says this was the mining method of the Chinese who flocked to California, after the ’48, and began working over the sites abandoned by Americans. We saw the spot where gold signs were discovered when the Bureau of Public Works constructed the road to Ipo–which led to the Ipo and Salacot mining industries today.

Old women still pan about 50 centavoes a day worth of gold out of the Santa Maria River near there–just as their ancestors did 2000 years ago.

At Ipo, we saw the coffer-dam being constructed on the Angat River which is to be completed in 1938, thus making a deep and narrow lake ten kilometers back into mountains. The river varies fifty feet in height between lowest and highest levels, and is always swift. The six kilometer tunnel, which took six years to complete, gives a six foot (in diameter) opening down towards the filter plant near Novaliches. When finished, this project will ensure Manila for the next century at least a fine water supply. Visited the new reservoir at Novaliches, and also the recently opened filter plant a few miles below there. All very wonderful engineering.

May 13, 1936

Intense heat these days–97°-100° indoors. In the afternoon Trinidad (who is the manager of the Pampanga Sugar Co.), of whom I asked why no sugar shares were for sale, said this was the time to sell out, not buy, but shareholders expected to get all their capital back in three or four years, and a profit also. However, present prices offered for the shares were too low to tempt holders into the market.

In shopping in Manila, especially on the Escolta, American “salesmanship” is used to the Nth power, with the result that some of us are offended (as I was in Heacock’s today) and leave without a purchase.

Five prisoners escape from Montinlupa–one is recaptured; the “trusty” system seems to have its limits.

At 3:30 p.m. went down to the Coolidge to say good-bye to High Commissioner Murphy and Quezon. The former looked preoccupied and tired. I said to Quezon: “you will see Doria in Peking.” He answered: “Oh! I’m only going to Hong Kong–to be back Tuesday (18th)–wish you were coming with me.” I told him I was staying here under Dr. Sison’s care. The next day, Vargas received a telegram stating that Quezon was not returning until the 28th so probably he will get as far as Shanghai. On the steamer, I chaffed Osmeña about being my “boss” now, and he said “I’m not to be acting President”–Quezon apparently acts on precedents of recent American presidents.

Talk with A. D. Williams. He said Quezon was angry with Bewley, whom he had previously always supported, because the teachers in the Bureau of Education had opposed giving up Teacher’s Camp in Baguio for the National Army as Quezon and MacArthur desire. This worried Bewley greatly, so he apparently saw Quezon and disowned all opposition.

May 12, 1936

Survey Board meeting, called to co-ordinate the work of the University of the Philippines with various bureaus. Present: Bocobo, Bewley, Kasilag, acting Director of the Bureau of Public Works, and Camus, Director of the Bureau of Plant Industry. Very interesting meeting in which they all seemed ready for cooperation. Bocobo suggested a means by which this may be done. Also, he and Bewley, Director of the Bureau of Education, talked of overproduction of vocational graduates, especially in agriculture, who could find no jobs afterwards. Public opinion is outraged if any attempt is made to close or limit schools. New type “A” curriculum is to be 60% academic and 40% vocational. They are going to try to give primary education to every child, and gradually to reduce the secondary. In Java and other Dutch East Indies there are only four trade schools and four agricultural schools for a population of over 50,000,000. The Muñoz Agricultural School in Nueva Ecija costs the Government nearly five times as much as do other schools.

Bocobo said the plan to have the legislature fix the salaries of Professors in the University of the Philippines would take away academic freedom. (I agree.) Unson made mild fun of this statement. Bocobo is strongly for increased funds for research–he suggested getting the several industries of the Philippines to contribute. We talked of the National Economic Council, and I called attention to its paralysis because no general economic policy has been adopted by the government; all its energies are now bent towards getting a relaxation of the sanctions of the Tydings-McDuffie act. Unson told me confidentially that the membership of the National Economic Council was not well received by the public. He said Elizalde and Trinidad were well thought of–but Madrigal’s business methods were prehistoric.

Bridge in p.m. with Satterfield, Peters and Saleeby.