April 1936
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Month April 1936

April 30, 1936

Called at Dr. Sison’s. I must go completely on the waterwagon. Went to the Bureau of Science–then to Malacañan where I talked for half an hour with Dawson (from Shanghai) of the United States Department of Agriculture. He has been here for some weeks studying the agricultural situation: says the Filipinos are the most “agriculturally minded” people he has ever known, and that many alert minds are busy on the problem of diversification of crops. Dawson reports the tobacco crops in the Cagayan valley are almost a failure from drought.

Saw Hartendorp and had a telephone from Dosser in Baguio. Tried to help out troubles for both.

Paulino Santos has been appointed Chief of Staff of the Army and a Major General–best man possible, and he will still be allowed to carry on as Director of Prisons–this will take him from Malacañan. Reyes also is made a Major General and Provost Marshal, Dr. Valdes a Major General, Vicente Lim also a General–all good selections.

Talked with Lapointe who has just come up from Antimonan where he is building a nipa shack in his coconut grove.

Went to the Aquarium which seems rather neglected. Called on Jim Ross to get his opinion concerning Americans becoming Philippine citizens. He agreed with Dewitt that this act does not impair American citizenship.

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April 29, 1936

Dr. Sison came to see me at Malacañan. He had advised Quezon not to leave on the Corregidor without taking a doctor along because of his infected gums which had to be lanced. The President went off with Osmeña--muchedumbre in Iloilo and in Cebu. I went to the Japan Club for the “Emperor’s birthday party.”

April 28, 1936

At Malacañan. A. D. Williams had just come from a conference with Quezon, Paez and Ramon Fernandez; says the President is set on building railways in Mindanao, and “A.D.” and, Fernandez tried to convince him they would not pay. “A.D.” said he thought he had offended Quezon still more by replying to his (Quezon’s) complaints that the roads offered too unfair competition to the Manila Railroad, that the competition from trucks was unfair and when they had finally managed by January 1, 1936 to get the tax on trucks raised from one peso to two pesos per 100 kilos, the rate had at once been reduced again. This was Quezon’s own doing on the advice of Geo. Vargas, and they both looked pretty glum. (This is the first instance I know since his inauguration where private interests had influenced the President contrary to the public interest.)

“A.D.” also inveighed against the taking of the accounting division out of the Bureau of Public Works and putting it with the others in the new budget office.

He also admitted it was a mistake to have put the Bagagab-Echague road over the mountains–it should have followed the Magat River down stream.

3 to 5 p.m. with the Survey Board quizzing the Directors of the Bureau of Lands and of the Land Registration Office. They sat side by side rather like naughty school boys, each covertly watching the other.

Bridge at the Polo Club, Peters, Satterfield and Ale. Went for a short time to Oleagas “cock-tail supper.”

April 27, 1936

Doria sailed away on the Empress of Japan for a six weeks vacation in China. This is our first long separation.

April 24-25, 1936

Long talks with Unson about the Philippine Government. He remarked that General Wood had a sense of humour and was a strong character–in some respects was a great man. Does not know why Wood vetoed the act to create a Budget Office.

Unson and I discussed the Bureau of Science. He thinks it is attempting too many diverse duties; that it is overlapping the work of other bureaus. Unson is in favour of turning it into an Industrial Research Bureau; when it has perfected an industrial method it should quit that and investigate another. Discussed also appointive provincial governors and a national police as authorized in the constitution, in order to stop political maneuvers, favouritism and improper use of the police. Various members of the Assembly seem to be receptive to these ideas.

We reviewed consideration of the Bureau of Posts and of a possible consolidation of the Bureau of Lands with the Land Registration Office. Unson says it has been a mistake always to have appointed a lawyer as Director of the Bureau of Lands. (Undoubtedly this is one of the most unsatisfactory Bureaus of the Government.) More discussions as to Aldanese and the Bureau of Customs. All agree that Aldanese is himself perfectly honest but has not enough firmness or “ferocity” (Unson).

Dinner with Mr. and Mrs Oleaga at Casino Español. Doria tells me that Marguerite Wolfson and Mrs Gaches tried to take care of Quezon at Topside, Baguio, two or three years ago when he was so ill he could not walk. They were trying to get him away from his host of followers, but Quezon stayed only thirty-six hours at Topside, and was so strenuous a personality that she and Mrs Gaches had to “go to bed for a week” after he left. She says he is as exhausting as a “vampire.”

April 22-23, 1936

At Malacañan and with the Survey Board. Quezon is to return from the Visayas tonight.

Dosser told me that there were 210,000 mountain people–of whom 100,000 were Ifugaos. He said that when the census of 1918 was taken and only 60,000 Ifugaos were reported, actually there were about 40,000 more of them hiding in the mountains on account of the great influenza epidemic. He believes that the Ifugao nation is diminishing in numbers thru the effects of malaria–they are very prolific but only bring up from two to three children to a family; they have rice to eat only half the year–(my own impression is that the destruction of the forests has diminished the water for irrigation and they cannot grow food enough).

April 22, 1936

Quezon returned on Visayas having left the Arayat on account of a small typhoon in the Bicols. Unson met him at the steamer and said he was in excellent health and spirits. He gave the President the result of the work of the Survey Board and Quezon at once appointed Assemblyman Marabut of Leyte as Under Secretary of Finance vice Carmona now President of the Philippine National Bank. The President accepted the Survey Board’s resolution creating a Budget Office directly under the President, consisting of Under Secretary Marabut, Auditor General Hernandez and Director of Civil Service Gil–transferring to this Board all accounting divisions of the Bureaus. Unson and Hernandez wanted property divisions also transferred to the Budget Office, but Trinidad, Paez and Dizon thought this would make too much friction–however, it is “now or never”!

Quezon spent 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. at Malacañan signing papers etc–then went off to Baguio for some days where he is busy with such Government officials as are now up there on “summer” vacation.

Babbitt and Rockwell have left the Philippines for a long vacation–“everybody” is supposed to be gone from Manila, but gaieties still keep up. Doria is preparing to depart on the 27th on Empress of Japan en route to Peking.

A San Francisco (Cal.) judge writes to Paredes concerning the “repatriation” scheme for Filipinos in the United States that: “the Filipino community in his city, in proportion to its numbers, affords the courts more criminal business than any other, and most of this is due to the fact that nearly all of them have white mistresses of a type not likely to do them much good–but still they are happy.” (This is all the more notable because such relations have always been very rare in the Philippines itself–and incidents arising therefrom are most unusual out here.)

April 22, 1936

Bridge–dinner at Murad Saleebys.

April 21, 1936

Returned to Manila, stiff, tired and dirty.

April 15-21, 1936

Trip with Doria to Ifugao to hunt on Colonel William E. Dosser’s ranch. Interesting, strenuous with terrific heat and a very long ride on ponies from Marasat, Isabela to the ranch house. Doria and I motored to Balete pass rest house the first afternoon–3000 ft altitude–cold at night. Last time I went thru here was on horseback in 1920, with Beth, Virginia, General McIntyre and Don Serafin Linsangan–hence arose the impulse to build this road; a difficult bit of engineering which has since tripled the population of Nueva Viscaya and Isabela through immigration. Even today, there are numerous families with all their household goods in bull or carabao carts moving in, chiefly over the high mountains from the Ilocos country. Some also enter via the old Villaverde trail from Tayug–which was almost impossible by horse in my day. The road leading up to Balete passes thru a wild and beautiful camping country with clear streams rather like northern California–now settling up. The equal of a train load of goods for or from the valley of the Cagayan passes over this mountain road every day by truck. The second range of mountains–between Nueva Viscaya and Isabela–has only a one way road, with terrific zig-zags and much delay. There are numerous tolls for the permanent or temporary bridges, which makes the passage quite expensive.

At noon, on the 16th we reached the army post at Echague, where Lt. Dionisio is in command. Echague is still in a backwater in spite of the thru road. It appears to be dull, stale, flat and weary, and is still in the grip of Chino store keepers. There, Dosser and Lieutenant Beulan met us, and at Marasat after ten miles of hellish rough and dusty barrio road we met Lt. Baccay with his four soldiers from Miayaoyao. Were told we could not make camp that afternoon, and had to spend a typical barrio night in Marasat, surrounded by dust, noises, smells and filth–pigs, dogs, chickens and carabao–garlic etc. This finally put Doria and me off eating for the trip, and the rest of the time I subsisted on tinned milk–being ill anyway. The barrio teniente brought in a wounded eagle which he carried peacefully under his arm–with a cord on its leg. This bird stood with superb disdain and pride while the barrio folk inspected it–Dosser let it go later.

April 17-20, 1936

Six hours on pony-back, over flat country and Magat river–which may be forded only at this time of year–then over low rolling country to a ranch leased from the Government by Dosser and Beulan; they have about one thousand head of cross-bred Hereford and Indian stock, which are the finest cattle I have seen in the Philippines. The altitude was only some one thousand feet; there is plenty of water and the whole country is ideal for grazing, resembling California in the old days. Hunting from the 17th-20th April 1936. We were posted on hills with “draws”–i.e., wooded valleys above streams which were beaten by Ifugao and Filipino hunters: very picturesque they were, with lots of their jackal-like dogs. The deer came out running at a distance of 150-200 yards–and were hard shots. We got 8 in all, and one sizeable boar was bayed by dogs and speared by the Ifugaos. We saw parrots, jungle fowl, monkeys and orioles, in the most beautiful imaginable scenery. The men caught a fifteen day old fawn (which we have brought down to Manila and are keeping in the yard). At the bathing creek near the ranch house, where the average depth of water is six inches, there is a hole about fifteen feet deep dug by the crocodiles which come thirty kilometers up in the mountains by the small streams discharging into the Magat River. They take occasional calves from the ranch. We saw no wild carabao, tho always expecting them. One crowd (!) (Batangas Transport) was near there the week before and had killed two cimarrones. The administration of the game laws by the Bureau of Science is ridiculous–it should be transferred to the Constabulary and have some teeth put in it.

There is a great scarcity of game since my day 20 years ago altho it is now supposed to be a closed season for 3 years, except for those who hold special licenses in the Mountain Province. We spent three golden days perched on hill tops watching the beaters and their dogs in the draws below–with the shouting, calling and fusillade from above when a deer appeared. Doria stood the “roughing it” and the physical strain magnificently–thirst was the worst feature of all–the temperature must have risen to 130° in the sun, and we had no effective method of keeping water cool in the canteens. The ponies did prodigies in carrying us up high hills over rough cattle trails–one of these little stallions does twice as much work as a stable-fed horse at home. I was ill with indigestion all the time, and made the grade with difficulty. Pleased by the abundance of song birds–(unusual in the Philippines) and by the hoarse shouts of the kalaw (hornbill).

Terrific heat, dust and hours of real thirst on the drive hack to Balete.

April 14, 1936

With Survey Board at the Bureau of Science. Very interesting. Lunch with Judge Purdy, Doria and Judge Ingersoll at the Manila Hotel. Dinner at home for Miss Buchan and Rosales and to a dance at the Casino Español for the 5th anniversay of the founding of the Spanish “Republic”–there must have been few of those Spanish present who really wished to celebrate that event!

April 13, 1936

Busy day at the office and shopping–with the Government Survey Board discussing the transfer of accounting divisions and property sections of the bureaus to the Budget Director. Dinner with Colonel Moller at Polo Club.

April 12, 1936

Arrived back in Manila, and was much pleased to be met by Doria at the pier. Quiet day at home. In p.m. to Montalban to see the bats–joined a picnic supper of the Oleagas; Rosales, Ducasse and the Pimleys.

April 11, 1936

In Iloilo, where we saw a great extension of the filled lands and a long river wharfage. It is a solid and well-kept city with fine environs such as Jaro etc; old Spanish churches. Little parklets are everywhere. Both this and Cebu are good-sized cities. Iloilo has been the centre for shipping the sugar from Negros and Panay. Now that the new port of Pulupandan has been opened, part of this traffic will be diverted there as soon as bodegas can be built, and Iloilo will suffer as Zamboanga did when the port of Davao was opened. Visit to the Santa Barbara Golf Club and to the Iloilo Club; luncheon at Greenbaums, with Wolff, Peters, the McCreers and the Powells.

Both in Iloilo and in Cebu, the Philippine Railway representatives complained bitterly about the Public Service Commission–said they fixed unfair rates, and two men in Iloilo told me [that the other judge was as undesirable as Judge Paredes who was fired.]

2 p.m. off for Manila and home.

Quezon is in Davao with three members of his Cabinet and the Japanese Consul General, trying to settle the land embroglio there.

April 10, 1936

Ingersolls, Walkers, McCreerys on board, also Karagdags and Sabido.

Ship Stopped for a minute at 7 a.m. in respect for the death of Harold Dollar.

What a treat to be on a first class well-run ship after a week of “barrio yachting.” Quezon frankly admits the conditions on the Arayat, and is expecting to get a new yacht.

This morning, nothing in sight except miles and miles of barren sea coast and the stony hills of Cebu–a good example of how mankind can destroy a rich country–all the trees are gone and the soil has washed out to sea as in China. The city of Cebu is quite unlike the cities of Luzon. There is an old Spanish fort, and the houses are more monotonous and solidly built; it has an immense wharf frontage, and several ocean-going steamers which take freight to foreign lands straight from Cebu. What a joy for the first time to visit this province without having reviews, parades, speeches, handshaking and stiff receptions. Was met by Colonel Gilhauser of the Standard Oil Co. He says sugar is the best investment in the Philippines today; there is gold in Mindanao; oil may be discovered in Cebu; he spoke of Mindanao, where he had been an excellent governor of three Moro provinces; he said they need care in handling–to kill Moros is the easiest way, but not the wisest.

Spent the day at the Golf Club where the Iloilo team had just arrived to play their annual match with Cebu. Carter Johnston, ex-judge, was there.

April 9, 1936

In Zamboanga. The Mayon arrived with Yulo, Quirino and Rodriguez, Santos, Fellers and many others, and Peters, Wolff and I shifted to the Mayon for Manila.

Interview with Johnson who has been here since ’99 and was an agent for Governor Frank Carpenter whom we discussed–he said Carpenter was a public servant thru and thru and perfectly coldblooded; knew everything that was going on from his agents and especially from Filipina women. Said the only way for a white man to succeed down here was by keeping active every day. Most of the fifty Americans who had settled in Zamboanga Province had gone in for loafing and booze, and lived on their Filipina wives. He was broke when in 1932 copra went down and he was left with nothing but debts–subsequently, he paid them all off and last year was assessed for the largest income tax in the Province, on an income of 50,400 pesos. It came from dealing in cutch and copra, and from stevedoring and automobile agencies. He remarked that the Chinese down here come as coolies, get a little tienda at some cross-roads and in ten years own all the property around–they plant nothing and create nothing–send to China for their “sons” (made by parcel post)! The Japanese on the other hand created plantations and improved and developed the country, and lived like highly civilized beings with all the modern conveniences. He greatly preferred the latter.

April 8, 1936

At sea, playing bridge en route to Zamboanga, where on arrival went that evening to dinner with Mr. and Mrs. Joe Cooley. Very pleasant. Quezon had a little dinner dance on board the Arayat for the Karagdags and Alanos. At 1:30 that night I was driven out of bed by mosquitoes and met Quezon walking restlessly around the deck. We talked for an hour or so; and discussed his advantages as Chief Executive over all of his predecessors, because he is the only one of us who has really known his own people. He laughed and said he always prefaced his interviews with Filipinos by saying “Now, I’m not an American Governor General–I’m a Filipino so tell me the truth!” He said he was not indispensible as many told him; that he knew at least four Filipinos who were capable of carrying on.

He then gave his impressions of American Presidents he had known in the past; T. Roosevelt impressed him by his vigour and likeableness; Taft by his sympathy and amiability; Coolidge was a small and dull man, and even his questions about the Philippines were foolish. As soon as Quezon read of the Lincolnian scene of Coolidge taking the oath of office before his father in the simple home under the lamp, he saw the beginning of a great and probably successful press campaign by “the interests”; Governor Forbes told him then that Coolidge would be a second Lincoln; “but (said Quezon) I never did think much of Forbes’ brains.” Told me more of Stimson and remarked how rough he was, but honest; they quarreled nearly every day, but never let the public know of it. Quezon felt respect and affection for him.

April 7, 1936

At sea nearing Jolo. At breakfast I had a talk with Quezon over the Government Survey Board. He said the government had become a mere bureaucracy; I told him the Survey Board was puzzled to know how to decrease the expenses of government in accord with his wishes–was it by lowering salaries? He said no–but by abolishing useless places and duplications.

The President then told me how, long ago, he had agreed with Governor General Wood to sign the contract for the sale of the government’s Portland Cement Co. in Cebu for 200,000 pesos; though he never intended to do so, but wanted Wood to keep quiet during his (Quezon’s) current political campaign then under way. The day after the election, Wood sent for him and presented him with the contract which he (Wood) had already signed, and then Quezon refused. Wood went purple in the face and rose as if to strike him. Quezon told him he had changed his mind, and that he took that privilege because Governor General Wood did it so often himself! The government cement co. now has a surplus of two million pesos, and is worth about four! Wood wanted to give the Manila Railroad away to J. G. White and Co.; also to sell all the government-controlled sugar centrals for a song. Quezon says Wood would have lost one hundred million pesos for the Philippines in his rage to “get the government out of business.” (I was the one who had originally put them in!)

Quezon is going later to Davao with three members of his cabinet: Rodriguez, Yulo and Quirino, to settle the ticklish international situation there; wish I could be there, but am going back to Manila.

Arrival at Jolo. Visits to provincial and municipal buildings. Quezon made a fine speech to the Constabulary at their quarters. He told them that the primary duty of soldiers was to ensure peace and order for their fellow men, and this should be sufficient reward for them. He said that the duty of the soldier in time of peace was to be courteous and just, but in time of war it was to kill; their rifles were not given to them as ornaments, but to kill when ordered to do so. Since several of the leading Moros were present, this firm attitude will be understood all over Jolo in forty-eight hours. The Constabulary can handle the situation of allowed to do so, and now they have been assured of the proper backing by the highest authority. The Moros are bullies, and understand only force.

Quezon told me he was going to break the power of the Datus (there are 6 or 7 of them in Jolo) and to stop the “babying” of them by the Government.

He received telegraphic news that the registration for the new Philippine Army had been 100% successful, and very happy he was over this–showing again how much better he understands his own people than do so many of the Filipinos.

A terrific rainstorm arose which prevented our trip across the island of Jolo by motor.

[Mrs. Rogers, the Moro wife of the former Governor of Jolo (and an old sweetheart of Quezon)] came to lunch. I asked her, before the President, how long it had been since the last disorder occurred here? She replied that order had been more disturbed during the past three years than for a long time past. She told the story of the killing last night of a boy of twelve who ran away from a provincial policeman–i.e., one of the “police” attached to the Deputy Governor, the Datu of Indanan. Quezon rose at once–sent for the municipal President, the Chief of Constabulary (Major Gallardo) and Governor James Fugate. I advised Quezon to abolish the “deputy governors” and their gangsters. I also advised him never to make a Moro the Governor of Jolo–he said he never intended to do so, but would appoint a Christian Filipino (Major Gallardo) as Governor in the place of Fugate, who was originally a “missionary” and “should have remained so.”

Quezon, when he had inspected the jail, reported that there was one young man in there who claimed to have killed his man in a fight. Quezon said he did not always object to that sort of killing, and would look into the case. He said there were also two Moro women in jail on the charge of adultery; he told Judge Labrador to try the two cases this morning, and if convicted, he would pardon the women, “since it is absurd to allow a man to have thirty wives and to put a woman in jail for adultery.”

Graft and tyranny are rampant among the Joloanos, and Quezon is glad he came down here to learn the situation.

Opium smuggling, which used to be rife here, is uncommon now, and this must mean that the British Government at Sandakan is at last helping to stop it. I couldn’t get them to do so in my day and this was the subject of an acrimonious exchange of views between myself and Lord Curzon when he was British Foreign Secretary. [Met Hadji Butu, former Prime Minister of the Sultan here, whom I made Senator, and later discharged as such for taking part in the opium traffic. I asked Mrs. Rogers what he lives on now–she replied: “graft–mostly religious.”]

Quezon is a most erratic bridge player–always doubling and bidding slams. He plays his hands wonderfully, and if he makes an original bid, it is sure to be very sound. I am losing heavily here, as I did on the Negros trip.

The President has apparently been completely cured of his stomach ulcer by a series of injections–he now eats copiously, and even drinks beer and cocktails. I must go to see his doctor as soon as I can get back to Manila.

The contrast here between the neat homes of the Christian Filipinos and the reeking quarters of Chinese and Moros is striking.

Mrs. Rogers told me that none of the teak forests of Jolo, the only ones in the Philippines–are being cut and sold. Main exports are copra and hemp. They grow some upland rice, but the Moro diet consists chiefly of tapioca and fish. They are marvellous sailors.

Quezon gave me to read “The Secret War for Oil” after I had gone through it I told him he ought to go down on his knees and thank God that oil had not been discovered in paying quantities in the Philippines. He said he had been first told that twenty years ago by Representative William Atkinson Jones of Virginia. If oil is found here, it should be in the hands of one company only–either American or English, and not divided up between various rival oil companies.

In the afternoon, trip around the island of Jolo on the new roads, and saw the sites of various battles fought by Generals Wood and Pershing. We visited all the Constabulary posts. I had been to Camp Romandier in 1915 when we had that thrilling deer hunt with spears, and on horseback. The agricultural development of the island is now simply wonderful–they are, perhaps, the best farmers in the Philippines; also they have fine stock; horses, cattle and carabaos. I told Quezon that this had changed my whole opinion of the Jolo Moros. It is an eye-opener; and he said it had had the same effect on him. That he was going to bring some money here, and help break the power of those who are exploiting the poor farmers of this paradise on earth–whether they are Vinta Moros, Chinos or the Datus. If necessary, he would have the National Development Company undertake the marketing of the crops, so as to cut out the extortioners. He repeated what Governor Fugate had told him: there are three kinds of Moros–the aristocrats, the farmers and the Vinta Moros, who own no land and live at sea.

The President is now receiving on the Arayat a delegation of the Datus who are not officially favoured by Governor Fugate. “Probably they are full of complaints.”

Quezon says he will provide appropriations for more water for Jolo. He is very enthusiastic over what he has seen. I told him he must be prepared for explosions if he broke the power of the exploiters–resistance on some feigned issue–he said he was prepared to handle that.

Altogether, I think this afternoon will have an important bearing on a fair settlement of the “Moro problem,” at least so far as Jolo is concerned.

The teak forests are very badly managed–but crops of hemp, maize, tapioca, coconuts and upland rice are excellently farmed; so are papayas, mangoes, kapok and other useful trees.

The President received a telegram stating that the Japanese had landed on Turtle Island, taken all the eggs and the female turtles and killed all the males–an incident full of disagreeable possibilities.

We received a statement in the town of Jolo from a local resident (Mrs. De Leon) that the magnificent farms we saw were the work of Scout and Constabulary soldiers who had settled there–the more backward farms were the work of the stay-at-home Moros.

Arrived in Siasi at 11 p.m.; a small crowd of local officials had gathered on the pier. Quezon is the first chief executive, I believe, to visit this island except General Wood. We stumbled about in the moonlight, visiting the old Spanish fort and the barracks built by the American soldiers in 1901. The main street was faintly lighted by electric light owned by a Chinese–there are one hundred Chinese here in a total population on the island of only some four thousand–one road has been built, four kilometers long, half way across the island. The racial stock here is Samal (the sea gypsies–there are three types of them, those who live entirely on their vintas with no house on land, those who live entirely on land and those who use both). Industries are pearls and copra. Evidently the Chinese get all the profits.

Quezon asked the locals whether they had any questions or complaints–one leader stepped up and advocated the retention of Governor Fugate (Siasi is a part of the province of Jolo). Quezon asked him: “are you the agent of the Governor?” and he replied “Yes, Sir,” and probably didn’t find out until the next morning the irony of it.

On our return to the steamer, Quezon talked for an hour with Peters, Wolff and myself. I lamented that the courts had overthrown our attempt to force by law the keeping of books by the Chinese businessmen in either English, Spanish or a native dialect of the Philippines. Quezon said the adverse decision in the Philippine Supreme Court, had been written by Justice Johnson, and that in the United States Supreme Court by Chief Justice Taft–but it was purely a political decision. Said that the new constitution of the Commonwealth had provided for that; that the rice marketing of the Philippines was entirely in Chinese hands, and they could, if they wished, starve the islands–“an intolerable situation,” he added.

Talking of the necessity of the Constabulary being supported by the head of the state, Quezon described the recent Sakdalista uprising in Laguna Province. The local chief of Constabulary received some rumours of a gathering and sent a patrol of one officer and ten men in the jitney to make a survey. Approaching Cabuyao (near Biñan) they found the town in the possession of a large party of Sakdalistas who had seized the Presidencia, on nearing which they were fired on and the officer and five men were wounded. The officer leapt from the jitney and cried out “come on and fight them, men”–they began firing and killed fifty of the Sakdalistas, after which the rest fled; but instead of commendation, the Constabulary were given repeated investigations! (Quezon was in Washington at the time.)

The President then passed to the subject of communism, and said that the Filipinos were easily drawn to these theories. Governor General Murphy he felt made a mistake when he released the communists from Bilibid prison–even though he was himself opposed to keeping men in prison for their political opinions. He made it as a condition to their release that they be exiled from Manila to various points such as Ifugao and Batangas. When Quezon assumed the presidency of the Commonwealth, he found that the people of the localities to which those men had been deported had built them houses and were supporting them! In Spanish days, all the Filipino patriots had been similarly deported! Quezon pardoned these exiles from home immediately in order to destroy their influence in politics. He then had an interview with [Evangelista, one of them who is an educated man and is a convinced believer in communism, and had been one of Quezon’s former leaders.] The President told Evangelista that it was folly to think the Philippines could be converted to communism. Evangelista replied that the communist leaders were building for the future; they were working for their grandchildren and were willing to die for their belief. Quezon retorted: “it’s no more use talking to you–you look out you don’t get into the clutches of the law again. There is one difference between you and me–you are willing to die for it and I am willing to kill you for it.”

Then we talked about health. Quezon said he thought my trouble was nervous indigestion and that I could be cured by having some work to do which really interested me: that as soon as I was through with the Government Survey Board he wanted me to work with him on a history of the Philippines during the fifteen years since my administration. The accepted belief in the United States, he said, was that I had wrecked the Philippines and Wood had restored it; while the exact contrary was the truth. We would get the figures, and he would give me the incidents from his own recollections. Told me how he was flat on his back in Baguio a few years ago when Osmeña opened his attack on him in connection with his opposition to the Hare-Hawes-Cutting law, saying Quezon should be driven from the Philippines. Quezon was at once carried from his bed to the train, and at Tondo station was carried from the train to a platform which had been erected there for him. Thousands of his followers were present. He spoke for an hour, and walked down from the platform and was ill in bed no more.

April 6, 1936

At sea, with wind abating. Talk over gambling and sporting shows in the Philippines. Greyhound racing has a definite black eye because of the crookedness of a promoter who first tried to introduce it here. I advocated establishing here professional pelota. The San Lazaro race track is a rotten show, and plans are on foot to have a new and decent one. I also advocated a Spanish lottery system, and said that “missionary” interference from the United States was now, under the Commonwealth a mere impertinence.

Quezon said that a new hotel should be built at Baguio, and some rooms set aside for roulette etc., to be run by a club–he would tell the Chief of Police to keep away.

Put into oil wharf near Zamboanga and refuelled–a swarm of mosquitoes came aboard. On to Zamboanga where I did not go ashore.